Title: Psycho Educational Evaluation Methods
Program: Doctorate Educational Psychology
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1. What is the educational evaluation?
There is a lot of difference about the concept of educational evaluation. Some are just an exam passed by the learners to determine their levels in the subjects. But if we are satisfied with this vision we will ignore the broad concept of the evaluation, which includes a judgment on the learner taking into account his ability to study material, , and intellectual and practical skills, and other factors that affect the level of the learner and his learning output. This includes the evaluation of educational evaluation for teachers, curricula, educational and educational institutions. P.Van (2018) Therefore, we can define the educational evaluation as a systematic process, based on practical principles, aimed at making a precise and objective judgment on the inputs and outputs of any educational system. Then identify weaknesses and strengths in each, in order to take appropriate decisions for reform. Katie ,D.( 2019 )
2. The importance of educational evaluation:
Educational assessment is a major component of all education systems and plays a crucial role during the student's educational journey. By measuring student achievement and mastery, student educational evaluation help students learn, teachers improve their learning process, and managers make decisions about how to use data, and policy makers to assess the effectiveness of educational programs. “Without evaluation and measurement, it is impossible to know a student's needs and preferences”. Andrew, B.(2018).
3. Psychological evaluation
The concept of evaluation include the process of judgment or assessment of the value of individuals or subjects, which in this sense requires the use of standards or Normes or Criteres to provide this value. From a psychological or educational point of view, we can say that the evaluation is a judgment on the extent to which the desired goals achieved in the manner in which those goals defined, including the study of the effects of certain factors and conditions in facilitating access to those goals. Moreover, the evaluation is a dynamic process aimed at a comprehensive survey of a particular situation for the purpose of judgment, which includes highlighting the strengths or weaknesses of positive or negative, determination of autonomy or personal decision, prediction or future expectation of the particular situation or behavior and evaluating a specific situation or program. Jane ,F.(2018)
3.1. Psychological evaluation programs:
Psychological evaluation program means a set of tools for measuring and varied educational methods applied by the group of psychologists, educators and social supervisors. All this is according to a system, which achieves the educational institution's access to information and data arranged and organized so that the supervisors of the educational institution can use it and make use of it in making appropriate decisions. In other words, the evaluation program includes the psychologists, educators and social supervisors, the aim of the tests, structured data, ways to benefit from them, and then interactive relationships between the evaluation board and other members of the educational institution, and between them and other social institutions in the community. Bree,L.(2016).
3.2. General steps in building an evaluation program :
The evaluation-working group should begin to define the objectives of the general educational process that the Society set. Then they should determine the educational objectives of the institution in which the institution will be the establishment of a program of evaluation; it should also identify the educational work in the institution After setting the goals, it should begin the process of selecting appropriate tests for these objectives, taking into account the diversity of these tests and their representation of all aspects to be measured. Apply these tests taking into account the basic conditions and instructions contained in each test In order to obtain information and data for individuals subject to measurement.
Extract the results of the tests and their interpretation, interpret their psychological implications, and then organize these results in a manner that can utilized, in order to make appropriate decisions, in the light of those data. Providing a periodic training for those who use the tests on the new methods that used in the evaluation program. Bree,L.(2016).
Some of the important characteristics that should be available in any educational evaluation program include: The evaluation program must take into account the principle of inclusion: that is, attention to not only the individual's abilities and its possibilities, but also trends and tendencies, and self-social and social consensus. The results of the tests should be organized in a clear and consistent manner, so that their interpretation becomes clear and useful; that is to summarize in a clear scientific reference framework of qualitative and psychological estimates and indications in the form of a comprehensive report to give a picture of the personality of the individual. Examined - And to be used for guidance, selection or education purposes.
The successful evaluation program is characterized by continuity: feedback within the institution, estimates, Assimilation tests are all evaluation program through which the administrator or the facilitator tries to assess the level of the individual and the extent of his development and, consequently, to direct him. All members of the educational institution in which the program is working must know what important program information and positive services can provide. (Susan, L.2019 )
3.3. The role of the Psychological evaluation program Psychological tests and standards are essential tools in the practice of a psychologist, and we cannot undo their role. This is the first method of identifying a psychologist in the detection of an individual's personality. They also have conditions that adhered to during implementation in order to maintain practice and assess results.
The main roles of the evaluation include:
Decision-making: The information that the psychologist receives through his use of the tests helps him to make the right decisions, including selection and classification. Selection is acceptance or rejection according to the estimates and results given by tests in terms of general intelligence, achievement, or emotional disturbance. The classification determines the type of treatment received by the individual chosen, ie the way a person is treated, placed in a particular category, trained, directed or treated.
Formulation of learning and training objectives: The step to test and identify goals is very important, as it intended to change the behavior of individuals during the learning and training phase. (Susan, L.2019 ). Some of the data that the educational institution can obtain, in order to determine the appropriate objectives, is the Information about individuals themselves: their abilities, skills, information, orientation and needs. In addition, these characteristics related to the developmental stage of these individuals: physical, mental, emotional and social development.
Taking into account these factors and characteristics in the formulation of goals makes educational work an aid to the individual to diagnose his difficulties and problems, meet his needs and his demands to remedy those problems and difficulties he faces. Collect Information about the demands of the community: This requires knowledge of the aspects that affect the community on the processes of education and training, so that the individual acquires the educational process information, skills and trends that are important in society and that help him to adapt to the requirements of social reality. (Susan, L.2019 ).
4. Psychological counseling - educational - : The use of tests of different types is a fundamental issue in guidance and psychological counseling as they are important tools that are determined in the light of the results diagnosis of the problem experienced by the individual.
So it enables the psychological understanding of the behavior of the examinee and create a comprehensive picture reflects the personality aspects of the examinee and dynamism, Identify the progress achieved by the examinee after being directed to self and social maturity .
The importance of tests in the counseling process is as follows: The tests provide psychological guidance with information and data needed in the process of directing and guiding the individual. It also provides the subject with a clear knowledge of self-exploration or self-insight and thus leads to psychological cooperation.
This work should be through the relationship between examiners and examined and interaction between them during the psychological examination, an interaction takes the form of self-expression in different ways. This may facilitate the work of psychological practice; or it may take a negative image that raises caution, suspicion and reservation in the examinee. On the other hand, it may take a picture of authoritarian pressure and threatening, which shows The processes of rejection, resistance and defensive means that protect the examined through. Since the process of interaction between the examiner and examined affect the behavior of the examinee, and responses, the psychologist should understand all dimensions of his interaction with the examinee, and master the art of establishing that relationship, Examination and continuity .
If the job of the psychologist is to implement the psychological tests and the extraction of results, the clinical guidance job is to diagnose and treat the psychological problems of students' social problems, and diagnoses the problems of education and professional guidance. Charles,J.(2014).
4.1. What is guidance?
Guidance is a process designed to help an individual achieve several factors like: Understanding the individual for himself by recognizing the extent of his abilities, skills, preparations and tendencies. Understand the problems they face, whatever their type.
Also, understand its physical and social environment including its potential. In addition to employing its own potential and the potential of its environment. Identify goals that are consistent, feasible, and achievable. Besides charting the ways in which these objectives achieved. Moreover, to adapt to himself and to his community interactively and to grow in his personality to the maximum extent of his abilities.
Individual counseling is the interrelationship between the psychologist and the examinee. This relationship aims at helping the examinee to change himself and his environment and the means of this relationship in the interview between the two parties. The guidance in this interview is that the counseling process is the focus of the orientation program. If these processes carried out in the field of education, this was an educational directive, but in other fields, it is psychological guidance. John,P.(2015).
4.2. Specialist of guidance and educational guidance:
Guidance in the field of education can help the individual student to evaluate his experiences and evaluate his behavior. In addition, Coordination of information obtained from sources for student assessment. Instructing the student regarding his self-confidence and the problems related to his understanding of himself and his social adjustment and educational guidance.
Moreover, getting more information about the student by interviewing and other assessment methods. Finding a link between school, home and community beside the coordination of school activity, especially in relation to student guidance and creating therapeutic ways for the simple problems of schoolwork.
This features psychological guidance as an educational, supportive, and help to solve problems at the level of consciousness, and the focus is on the normal, usually short-term. In other words, guidance is to help the good to reach a better level of adaptive skills that seem to raise maturity, independence, self-integration, and responsibility.
While psychotherapy is characterized as well as personal re-formation, with attention to the depth of personality, and that my analysis, and treat patients with Nevrose or who have acute emotional problems, and may be long-term. John,P.(2015). Some Parents or schools often resort to educational psycho-evaluation when they have concerns about a student's cognitive, learning, behavioral, or learning ability.
The psycho-educational evaluation assesses the child's cognitive abilities, including the psychological or cognitive processes such as memory, attention, information processing, and executive performance. They are measured using intelligence tests and the most famous are the Johnson's cognitive tests and the Wechsler tests. Also, Academic achievement, such as reading, writing, arithmetic, and oral language. They are measured using academic achievement tests and the most famous are the Johnson-Woodcock Johnson Collective Tests .Moreover, Behavior and social performance in the context of the various developmental stages. This in compare with other children of the same age. They measured by observation and behavioral assessment lists.
Accordingly, the aim of psycho-educational evaluation is to identify cognitive and academic strengths and weaknesses, and then to target these aspects with appropriate therapeutic intervention and support. The examiner is able to obtain information from various sources, such as interviews with parents and teachers; assessment lists, test results applied, and direct child observation. John,P.(2015).
5. The Wechsler Scale for Intelligence (Components, Strengths and Weaknesses)
The American scientist Wende Wechsler in 1939 (an expert psychologist at the Belkieu Psychiatric Hospital) developed a number of measures of intelligence, such as this measure to measure the intelligence adolescents. This measure of the intelligence of adolescents consists of eleven tests, six are verbal and five practical. Robert,K.(2018).
5.1. Verbal tests include the following :
a) General information:
This test consists of 25 sections that deal with general information that is gradual in their difficulty. The test starts with a training question that is not calculated in the grade estimation. This test measures the individual's knowledge and distant memory. The degree to which the individual attains the extent of his communication with the world around him and education of the individual. The motivations and intellectual aspirations of the individual also have an impact on the degree to which they obtained. The correct answer is one degree and the wrong answer is zero.
b) General understanding:
This test consists of 10 questions that depend on general social experiences. This test measures the individual's ability to evaluate experiences, and the correct response or answer to an existing balance of knowledge depends on an intellectually appropriate and emotional state. The poor compatibility of the individual leads to a reduction in the degree in this test, and give to answer each question in this test score (0, 1, 2) depending on the degree of generalization or type of answer, the end of the degree here is 20 degrees, and there are two alternative tests given: (1-3) and the second (4-10).
c) Theoretical Hypothesis:
This test consists of 10 arithmetic problems, the first eight of which given orally. The ninth and tenth questions given on a card and the candidate is asked to read them aloud and ask him to solve them without using the paper and pen. This test measures not only the mathematical reasoning but also measures the ability To focus (focus attention) on the conduct of intellectual processes, taking into account that the lack of grade for illiterates, for example, may be due to the lack of opportunity for education, so the test in this case only measures the mathematical reasoning.
d) Returning Numbers:
This test consists of strings of numbers on the examiner and asks him to return them in the same order, other strings are required to return them in reverse, and the overall score for this test is the highest number of numbers returned in both tests. This test measures memory and measures attention.
This test consists of 12 pairs of words. The examiner asked to state the similarities between each pair. For example, the examiner mentions (orange, banana). The respondent asks what the similarities are. If the respondent answers that both are fruit, the answer is, correct. 0, 1, 2) depending on the degree and type of circularization according to the rules and models of correction contained in the manual, and the total score for this test is 24 degrees. This test measures the formation of the verbal concept as well as the ability of the individual to verbalize the relationship between two or two subjects, and the weak answers indicated by the researcher to the rigidity or distortion of his intellectual processes. Wechsler, D. (2003). We can distinguish in the response of the examinee three levels:
A) Visual response: such as denying the existence of parallels or giving a semi-superficial face such as to say for the dog and lion they have two men.
B) Functional response: Like to say the two eat.
C) The phantom response: Like saying two animals.
Because similarities point to fact-relationships, the response reveals how the subject looks at his world and connects it to things. b Wechsler believes that a good response to the test of similarities may be due to a flood of ideas or a strong attachment to logical thinking. The weak response may be due to an internal need for visual reflection rather than a lack of mental capacity for the examinees.
This test consists of 42 words asking the researcher to define the meanings of each of them, which is gradual in difficulty, and where the researcher begins to define the failure to define five consecutive vocabulary. it is necessary here to record the answers of the examinee as to benefit from its clinical quality signs and to review the correction according to the rules And models in the manual. This is one of the most stable tests. It is not affected by age. It is highly correlated with total score and with most verbal tests by 0.7 to 0.9. This test quantitatively measures long-term memory and reflects the IQ of the individual.
5.2. Practical tests (performance) include the following:
1.1 Arrange photos:
It is a practical test and consists of a training package and six basic sets of images. Each group represents an understandable story. This test measures the individual's ability to understand and assess the overall situation and to plan and evaluate things. It measures the sequential thinking, and the test includes practical situations. Wechsler believes that the understanding and follow-up of ideas in images does not depend on the culture of the individual and his environment, but depends on personal factors, although it is not denied that the cultural factors role in the interpretation of the series of images. The final score on this test is a set of partial estimates of the various groups, which is 21 degrees.
1. Complementing images:
The test measures the ability of the individual to distinguish between the basic details, measures the visual organization, does not require significant manual activity, this test is a measure of the visual concentration, and the performance is affected the individual in this test is classified by the content of the images. The individual who has not seen or read a steamer is not expected to know that all the ships have stacks that are often found in the middle.
2. Cubes fees:
This test consists of a box of 16 cube and 9 cards each with a different fee, two of which are for training, where the examiner initially presents four cubes and the first training card and knows how to put the cubes to be exactly similar to what is in the first training card. That the examinee has absorbed the work, showing him the second training card and the four cubes of their own, and asks to be assembled to form the required drawing and when the examiner finds that the examinee has understood the work presents the basic card No. (1) And cubes of their own, Help after pain Training expectant mothers that were at the beginning. This test is a test of visual kinetics, and this test includes both structural and analytical ability. Success and speed of performance depends on the ability of the individual to analyze everything to its partial components, as this test reveals creative abilities.
3. Assembling things:
This test consists of wooden models of three things: the boy, the face, the hand. Each of them is cut into different pieces, each of which is required to collect the pieces so that the shape is integrated. This test is a visual kinetic consistency test, and the behavior of the individual during the test indicates his or her method of problem solving. In this test, the examiner displays the pieces of the boy, for example, and asks him to assemble the pieces together as quickly as possible and calculates the time for him. The exact time for testing the boy is two minutes. The face test has a time of 3 minutes.
The first model (boy) corrects only the accuracy, and the other two models (face and hand) correct each by precision and time together .The total score of the test is 16 degrees.
4. Number symbols:
This test consists of the key symbols and numbers boxes printed in the answer book (Answer Sheet). In this test, the examiner identifies the examiner with the nature of the test and then performs five training attempts so that the candidate will learn from him. If the examiner fails to identify the correct answer for the fifth attempt, The examiner has the correct answer and so on up to eight attempts, and the examiner is asked to take the test. The final grade of this test is 67 degrees and the time given to the examiner on the nature of the test and then with five training attempts to learn the required examiner. If the examiner fails to identify the correct answer for the fifth attempt, the examiner will tell him the correct answer and so on. The accuracy and speed of the test performed in this test indicate the level of mental ability, and it measures the visual kinetic consistency. Wechsler, D., & Naglieri, J. A. (2006).
5.3. Scale Credibility:
Numerous studies that indicate the validity of the scale in a variety of fields, whether by studying the relationship between the level of performance in the scale and external scales, the relationship between the scale and other measures of intelligence, or through global analysis.
- Wexler has revealed quite a few studies of the existence of high correlation coefficients between the scale and other scales, in particular the Stanford-Binet Scale of Intelligence. - In the light of Wechsler 's definition of intelligence, it is natural for researchers to look at the universal structure of the scale because some tests may be better than others to measure intelligence may. Deborah, J. (2018).
5.4. Positives and strengths in the scale:
The standard may be applied to individuals aged 15 to 60 years and above and thus suitable for adolescents and adults, in addition it consider one of the most famous standards of intelligence. The scale can measure three degrees (the ratio of verbal intelligence and the proportion of scientific intelligence and total intelligence) and can be through it to identify the individual abilities of the person.
The scale is used to a large extent in the identification of mental and mental diseases and deviations is not only a test of mental capacity, but is used in the field of diagnosis. It provide a brief picture of the scale can be used in some cases. The scale is characterized by the inclusion of performance paragraphs (process), thus avoiding the saturation of the standard structure verbal factor, which was affected by collection.
Wechsler believes that the measure of adult intelligence when using the concept of mental age is misleading, because after about the age of (15) the average score in all IQ measures is almost a substantial increase in age. The meter measures speed and accuracy. It measures the accuracy of visual perception and measures memory and structural ability as well as the formation of verbal and other abilities. The scale can measure the intelligence of the illiterate and the deaf by applying only the practical part of the scale. Within the sample of standardization of the measurement of blind people, the measurement can be applied to them. It has a comparison between different intelligence levels. Moreover, it classifies individuals according to their verbal or performance (practical) abilities and is therefore a good measure of career guidance and guidance. The measure is more accurate than other measures in its representation of the educational level. It also used to calculate the proportion of adults and patients. Deborah, J. (2018).
5.5. Disadvantages and weaknesses in the scale:
One of the weakens of the scale that we may not be able to apply the practical part of the scale with some categories, such as the blind or disabled people because of their inability to perform. The scale is applied individually and here may appear bias of the examiner.it also, does not depend on the general factor.
The scale provide some of the information in the scale and not keep pace with the progress of scientific and practical for the era we live and thus need this information to update. The application of the scale requires a long time and may be divided into more than one session in which test conditions may vary because of the length of the test. In addition, the need to train the examiner used to measure the Wechsler Bellevue to the intelligence of adults on the way to apply the test where it needs experience and practice to apply.
6. Parents role in psychoeducational evaluation :
Parents has a big role in identifying their kid educational level by Listen to the feedback from the school and from the child himself. Psycho-educational assessment have a great value if they notice that their child is not interested in school or is in some way "bad at school" and therefore unwilling to make any additional effort, That the schoolwork required is difficult, or that he or she needs a very great effort to learn the skills that his colleagues can easily understand. Orit ,G.(2013). Behavior is everything; often the child's behavior in the classroom is indicative of problems with attention or learning. The student may seem distracted because he does not know what is going on inside the classroom, because he has problems following the instructions, or that he is trying to avoid schoolwork because he does not know how to do it. When the child exhibits attention-deficit, behavior while his level of progress is very slow compared with his peers, psychological assessment is very helpful in exploring the causes.
They should look at the changes associated with their child’s interests at school. Some children show academic weakness despite their success in the first school years. The child may not have difficulty understanding the initial principles, but now he seems uninterested in making a greater effort at schoolwork, and may appear bored from school. Parents may also talk about how their son seems to be very smart and that he could be the first to describe himself if he studies hard. Psycho-educational evaluation will be very useful in this case to understand this separation or discrepancy between the child's potential and current performance in school.
They should be prepared, educational psychological assessment is an intensive and demanding process for the child and his family. Parents will be included in the initial interview and will be asked to fill out a set of templates asking for detailed information about your child's medical, developmental, behavioral and social history.
Parents are encouraged to bring any previous reports they may have to this interview, as well as talk about their concerns and ask any questions related to the future of their son. With regard to the number and duration of test sessions, it depends on the age of the child, and you should expect to schedule a number of individual test sessions. For best performance, its recommend to apply test sessions in the morning. Furthermore, it is not recommend testing in one session because this leads to exhaustion of the child. In contrast, scheduling intermittent test sessions protects the child from mental stress Physical and improves its motivation.
Time is very important; they should not wait until their child fails. The individual pedagogical plan for children who need academic adjustments or adaptations is usually prepared for their school program almost the beginning of the school year, when the child begins to get used to his or her new class and teachers.
For this reason, it is preferable to conduct an educational psycho-evaluation in advance in the summer to avoid wasting time. In order for the results of the evaluation to be useful for the school and the child to identify areas of intervention early in the process, the child's educational plan designed to meet its own needs.
The psycho-educational psychologist should provide a special part of educational psycho-evaluation with recommendations and practical applications that are clear to the results of the assessment on the child's learning and school environment. Moreover, the preferred practice requires the psychologist to discuss the findings of the report and to clarify the recommendations resulting from it with the student, the school staff and the parents. Tali.S.(2014).
7. Conclusion :
Educational Evaluation is a process that is conducted in most educational institutions. In some countries, assessment and interviewing tests may begin to select children in preschools. However, many of these uses take a rather managerial form rather than focus on the educational purpose, especially in the primary stage where the calendar is associated with an administrative requirement rather than the idea that evaluation can contribute to improving learning, teachers and the process of teaching students. Many reasons may not lead to a good student evaluation. Some may already be associated with student performance, but some may relate to the teacher performance or content and relevance to the calendar.
Evaluation tools also play an important role. The impact of tests on the learning and learning process can have positive effects and may have negative effects if they are not properly addressed and take into account all dimensions of the evaluation process. Therefore, the quality, the formulation of the evaluation, the objectives of the evaluation or the main purpose of the evaluation are the most important factors to identify the students educational level.
8. Bibliography :
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3. Charles,J.(2014), Counseling Psychology, Third Edition. American Psychological Association. USA
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6. John,P.(2015). Educational Guidance. Retrieved from https://johnparankimalil.wordpress.com/2015/01/24/educational-guidance/
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8. Orit ,G.(2013). Understanding your Child Psychoeducational Assessment report. Hidden Sparks 2013.
9. P.Van (2018) ,Studies in Educational Evaluation. Journal of translational Autoimmunity. pp. 1–294.
10. Robert,K.(2018). An Explanation of Wechsler Tests. Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/explanation-of-wechsler-tests-2774691
11. Susan,L.(2019 ).Psycho- Educational Evaluation. Retrieved from https://www.able-differently.org/for-parents/psycho-educational-evaluation/
12. Tali.S.(2014). Psycho-Educational Assessments: Guidelines for Parents. Retrieved from https://www.psy-ed.com/wpblog/psycho-educational-assessments/
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14. Wechsler, D., & Naglieri, J. A. (2006). Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability (WNV). San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Assessment.
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